How To Read A Field Data Report

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For the raw field data reports, both for well pad sites and surface/reservoir bottle sites, you will see a table such as the one below. This page serves as a guide to interpreting the information presented in the table.


  • Site ID: A unique identifier for each sample point at Beaver Run. In general, letter designations match the first letter of the pad's name (G= Gaut, A = Aikens, etc.) but there are a few exceptions to this and will be noted when possible.
  • Collector: The first name/last name initials of the field personnel who collected the data. At the top of each report, the actual names are provided with their initials. Other than project leaders Brian Okey (BO) and Nathan McElroy (NM), all data collectors are geography students.
  • Time: The time (in 24-hr format) when the data was recorded in the field.
  • pH: The pH is a measure of water acidity. A pH value < 7 is considered acidic (the lower the value, the more acid is present) and a pH value > 7 is considered basic (the higher the value, the more basic it is). For more information about pH measurements, see Acidity and Alkalinity.
  • TDS (ppm): TDS is an acronym for Total Dissolved Solids, given in units of parts per million (ppm). For more information about TDS, please see Total Dissolved Solids. In the field, this value is calculated by the conductivity measurement.
  • Cond (μs): The is a measurement of electrical conductivity in microSiemans. This value is used to calculate TDS in the field.
  • Temp (°C): This is the water temperature in degrees Celsius.
  • Comments: These are comments recorded by Collectors in the field. If no comment is recorded, you will see "none" in this box. Some comments will include footnotes to clarify the comment, like for sample G-06 below.

Note that each column title has a set of up/down arrows next to the title. This allows you to sort the table (ascending/descending) should you wish to do so. At the bottom of each numerical value column, there is a value (in bold) that is the calculated average (or mean) of all the values in that column.

Site ID Collector Time pH TDS (ppm) Cond. (µS) Temp. (C°) Comments
G-01 AH, RC 15:15 7.48 38 79 6.5 none
G-02 AH, RC 15:22 7.55 38 78 6.3 none
G-03 AH, RC 15:25 7.48 39 78 5.9 none
G-04 AH, RC 15:32 7.71 43 87 6.1 none
G-05 AH, RC 15:40 7.62 27 53 5.4 low flow
G-06 AH, RC 15:50 dry[1]
G-07 AH, RC 15:57 6.68 57 119 6.3 low flow
G-08 AH, RC 15:19 7.52 39 77 6.4 none
G-09 AH, RC 15:36 7.66 48 96 5.6 none
G-10 AH, RC 16:05 7.20 37 75 5.8 silt sock near sample point upstream
Average values 7.43 41 82 6.0

Summary Field Reports

In addition to the quarterly field reports, each pad site, and each surface site and reservoir site has a summary report (e.g., Site 01) that shows all field and lab results for only that site over the all sampling quarters. Each analyte is explained above. The only different for the summary reports is that both field and lab data are shown for bottles sites, and each row has a link to the quarterly report. Finally, at the bottom of each data column we report both the mean and standard deviation values when applicable.

Note: Each table column reports raw field or lab results. However, the means and standard deviations may have different numbers of decimal places. The reason for this is that we typically only report the mean value to the same number of decimal places as the first digit in the standard deviation value. Reporting any more precision than the first digit doesn't really mean much. For example, temperature values are reported to the nearest 0.1 degree. However, due to the wide range of temperature values over different seasons or years, the mean may be reported as 12 ± 7.


  1. Site denoted as "dry" indicates an active sampling site that has little or no water present for field measurements.

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