Fluoride (F-) is the anion of the element fluorine. For the Beaver Run Project, fluoride is detected and quantified by suppressed anion chromatography. Our current limit of detection is xx ppm, and our current limit of quantitation is xx ppm.
Sources of Fluoride
From the World Health Organization (WHO):
"Waters with high fluoride content are found mostly in calcium-deficient ground waters in many basement aquifers, such as granite and gneiss, in geothermal waters and in some sedimentary basins. ... Fluoride is found in vegetables, fruit, tea and other crops. although drinking water is usually the largest contributor to the daily fluoride intake. Fluoride is also found in the atmosphere, originating from the dusts of fluoride-containing soils, from gaseous industrial wastes, from the burning of coal fires in populated areas and from gases of volcanic activity. Thus fluoride, in varying concentrations, is freely available in nature."
Fluoride Levels and Health
A small amount of fluoride in water (0.8 - 1.2 ppm) helps prevent tooth decay and strengthens bones, and it is therefore sometimes added to municipal drinking water sources. However, too much fluoride (>1.5 ppm) can cause fluorosis (pitting of tooth enamel and, in large doses, skeletal deformation).
Notes and References
- Flouride. World Heath Organization's Water Sanitation and Health. http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/naturalhazards/en/index2.html, accessed 02/01/2016.
- Table of Regulated Drinking Water Contaminants, US EPA, http://www.epa.gov/your-drinking-water/table-regulated-drinking-water-contaminants; accessed 02/01/2016.
- Table of Secondary Drinking Water Standards., US EPA, http://www.epa.gov/dwstandardsregulations/secondary-drinking-water-standards-guidance-nuisance-chemicals; accessed 02/01/2016.